In order to fully understand the meaning of the term cytoskeleton, it is necessary, first, to discover its etymological origin. In this case, we can state that it is a word that derives from Greek because it is the result of the following Greek components:
-The noun "cito", which is synonymous with "cell".
-The word "skeletons", which comes to refer to the "skeleton", that is, the set of bones of the body of vertebrates that comes to protect internal organs.
He cytoskeleton It is a system composed of protein which is in the cells and that enables cell displacement. This network also contributes to the organization of cell structures, which provides support to preserve its shape.
Many of the functions of the cell In fact, they are developed thanks to the presence of the cytoskeleton. In addition to mobility it also allows, for example, the cellular division .
Among the cytoskeletal components of eukaryotic cells we find the microtubules , the intermediate filaments and the microfilaments . The microtubules , which develop in the extension of cytoplasm , arise by the polymerization of beta and alpha tubulin proteins.
From the microtubules we can highlight another series of aspects of interest such as the following:
-They are shaped like a tube and have a size between 20 and 25 millimeters in diameter.
-Exercise a fundamental task when it comes to getting the vesicles and organelles to move.
-They come to grow from the centrosome to the periphery of the cell in question.
-What is the external movement of the cell is achieved through the flagella and cilia.
The intermediate filaments of the cytoskeleton are considered as the elements of greater stability in the cytoskeleton. Demines, vimentin and cytokeratin are some of the proteins that compose it. As for the microfilaments , present a couple of chains of actin that bind on a helix.
In the same way, we cannot ignore another series of proteins that make up the intermediate filaments. We are referring to some such as nestin, nuclear lamines or glial fiblial acidic protein, which is also known by the name of GFAP.
In addition to these filaments we can highlight the fact that they have about 10 millimeters in diameter and that are responsible for giving tension to the cell.
As for the cytoskeleton of the prokaryotic cells At first it was thought that it did not exist. However, with the weather structures similar to those presented by the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells were detected.
The so-called prokaryotic cytoskeleton, therefore, is formed by the various structural filaments of this type of cells. As with eukaryotes, the cytoskeleton is involved in functions such as maintaining shape and cell division. Crescentin, MreB and FtsZ are the components of the cytoskeleton in the cells of organisms prokaryotes .