Confidentiality is the confidential quality (which is said or done in trust and with reciprocal security between two or more individuals). It is a property of the information what aims to guarantee access only to authorized persons .
When confidential information is produced (a letter, a document , a report, etc.), those responsible decide who or who has right to access it. The precautions to be taken to guarantee such confidentiality depend on the context. For example, a person who wishes to send a letter to a relative from abroad, usually agrees to enter the note into an envelope, trusting that no one but his recipient will open it.
If the confidential information includes material that you can put in risk The security of a nation, the level of precautions will be much higher. In general, documents of this nature are placed in the custody of specialized public bodies, in secret locations, and in many cases code writing is used.
The confidentiality of digital information (such as an email) can also be protected, although not with physical measures, but with encryption mechanisms and other virtual tools.
In some professions and trades, confidentiality is associated with an ethical principle. That is the case of professional secret who should not violate the doctors or the psychologists . A similar situation occurs with the priests when they listen to the faithful in confession or with the journalists when they guarantee the protection of a source.
In the case of medicine, it is possible to break the covenant of confidentiality only in particular cases, provided that the objective is the welfare of the patient, and sharing the information with people who can provide a solution, directly or indirectly. In addition, this is allowed in very specific situations, according to the legislation of each country. On the other hand, every patient has the right to hide their health status when they are admitted to a hospital, which forces the staff to deny their presence in the center and to reject any correspondence that has it as a recipient.
Many software and hardware developers must sign contracts of confidentiality when they start working for important firms, since the disclosure of secret projects can negatively impact the market. It is worth mentioning that some companies spend long years working on prototypes of revolutionary products before bringing them to light, so they depend on the seriousness of their employees so that their ideas are not leaked ahead of time.
These contracts or agreements They are also common among companies and journalists, on dates close to the launch of a product, since the latter usually receive the news well in advance to evaluate them and make their criticisms. In the case of a video game, for example, companies restrict the scenarios, characters, powers and situations they can talk about, the images and audio they can share with their followers, and any other data they consider vital. for the impact of the title on the public.
A confidentiality agreement is created so that each party is aware of the interests of the other and respects them, to accept their time without exception and both can benefit. It is worth mentioning that it is possible to sign mutual confidentiality contracts, in which restrictions are established for all its participants.
There are certain special cases that invalidate the power of a confidentiality contract, such as that the recipient has prior knowledge of sensitive information, that is, that he has obtained it by other means. In some cases, despite the efforts of large companies to prevent certain data from leaving their facilities, a fleeting publication on a network is enough Social so that these are known throughout the world in a matter of minutes.