The term theater comes from greek theatron, which can be translated as the space or site for contemplation .
The theater is part of the group of performing arts . Its development is linked to actors who represent a story before an audience. East art , therefore, it combines various elements, such as gestures, speech, music, sounds and scenery.
On the other hand, the concept of theater is used to name the gender of the literature covering those texts designed for stage representation, and also to building where the plays are represented.
For example: "An Argentine author received an important prize for a play in Slovenia", "I propose that we go to the theater tomorrow", "My dream is to be a theater actor and live on my art".
Theatrical practice is formed by a whole that cannot be divided. It is possible, however, to distinguish three basic elements, such as text (what the actors say), the address (the orders issued by the person in charge of the staging) and the performance (the process that leads an actor to assume the representation of a character). To these components you can add other very important elements, such as costumes, decorations or makeup.
It should be noted that those who write plays are known as playwrights , although the specific definition of the term refers to the writer of drama or drama.
Brief history of the theater
The historical origins of the theater are associated with the evolution of rituals related to hunting and the collection of fruits and food from agriculture, which led to dramatic ceremonies through which the deities were worshiped. These rituals also sat and reflected the spiritual precepts of the social group.
Anyway, it was just in the Classic Greece , when this religious idea was brought to perfection. Theatrical performances were then created, where the choreography, the music, the recitation and the text formed a unique balance. Among the founders of the theater as we conceive it today were the creators of the tragedies, such as Esquilo, Sófocles and Eurípides, and of the comedy, genre that has always stood out Aristophanes . At that time both comedy and tragedy allowed to express political, social and religious ideas, necessary to understand the time in which one lived.
At Ancient Egypt (in the middle of the second millennium before Christ ), for example, dramas used to be performed with death and resurrection in Osiris . Already by then costumes were used and More expensive in the dramatizations.
From Century XVI The theater began to reach great popularity throughout the world, emerging street cars offering theatrical shows and amphitheaters created for the same purpose. In this period the national theater emerged, which tried to show popular values and elements, highlighting the importance of the homeland. He Spanish occupies an important place in this type of theater and in him the figures of Lope de Vega, Tirso de Molina and Calderón de la Barca stand out. Also in England and France the popular theater becomes very important where the works of Shakespeare and Corneille, Racine and Molière, respectively, stood out.
Thus, the theater is one of the artistic disciplines that can be identified with the time in which he lives. The plays they respond to the period in which they were created and allow to know in depth the social, cultural and political aspects that surrounded the life of their author.
Some essential names in the theater
Among the authors who have contributed most to the theater is William Shakespeare . He was born on April 25, 1564 in the United Kingdom and dedicated himself to writing plays and poetry, he was also actor . His life has been questioned on more than one occasion, especially his sexuality, his religious ideas and even the authorship of his works. Anyway, there is no evidence to know if this rumor is true, so for now Shakespeare is one of the most prestigious theater authors. His works include "Hamlet", "Romeo and Juliet" and "Othello".
Lope de Vega He is known as one of the most important Spanish theater authors on the peninsula. It is believed that he composed more than 1,400 comedies and a few tragedies. His works are characterized by an unusual originality in his time (he rejected the classical model imposed by the Greeks), offering a theater with a purely national character.
He also broke with the Aristotelian schemes that divided the theater into comedy and tragedy and in his works he merged both styles getting an absolutely new and unique style. His works highlight the honor of the people, the old and the peasants, to name a few: "The best mayor", "Fuenteovejuna", "The villain in his corner", "The star of Seville" and "The Knight of Olmedo. "
Among the French theatrical authors, Jean Racine and Molière stand out.
Jean Racine He was born in 1639 and quickly became famous with his tragedy "Andrómaca". Later he wrote "British", "Mitrídates" and "Fedra", among others. It is said that with Racine the tragedy with a classic style reached its greatest splendor, many critics mention him as the quintessential theatrical author. His works are characterized by presenting a clear and simple action where events are an inevitable consequence of the passions of the characters.
Molière On the other hand, he was born in 1622 in France and was a man delivered to the theater with all his soul. He toured the country with a theater company performing author, actor and director for more than 15 years. He was characterized by being a man with innate abilities for the theater, with an imagination and an inexhaustible source of occurrences, which allowed him to enjoy great popularity, keeping his public always alert, pending new good theatrical performances, where they were assured of laughter and enjoyment behind ironic characters but without escaping realism altogether. Among his most famous works are "The misanthrope", "Don Juan" and "The imaginary patient". When he is named, he speaks of Molière's universe, extremely rich and realistic, better than any author could ever create.